Here are some good instructions on how to plant garlic.
Select largest bulbs and cloves or purchase seed garlic. Plant garlic in the fall 4-6 weeks before ground freezes (mid-late October). Separate bulbs into cloves, and discard (eat) any with damage. We treat our garlic with “Oxidate” (a hydrogen peroxide product used in Certified Organic Agriculture) according to label before planting… this is optional insurance against disease. Plant in 3′ wide beds prepared with gypsum, OG fertilizer (pro-gro, cow manure, ect), and till in 6-8 inches. Plant cloves 3″-5″ deep with tip up (root down) 8″ apart in rows that are 8″-10″ apart. Mulch entire bed with 3″-6″ of straw (preferred), hay or horse manure (which is mostly shavings).
Hardneck garlic will send up a scape (flower) in June. It is delicious– the BEST part of the garlic! Once it curls, snap the flower stalk off above the leaves. Bon appétit! Leave the rest of the plant to grow a nice bulb below ground. Failing to remove the scape results in tiny garlic.
Once the bottom 3-5 leaves of the garlic plant turn yellow (early August), pull entire plants up, remove/shake/wash dirt off and cure garlic for storage.
Garlic must cure to store. We bundle garlic on 2′ strings. Grab 10 plants, fan bulbs out for good air-flow, and tie stems tightly (garlic stems shrink as they dry, and garlics fall out of the bunch). Tie ten on each end of the string. Hang bundles up in dry barn/shed/garage (not damp basement!) until leaves are crispy, and bulb wrappers are papery (about one month).
Storage: Cut off stalks and roots. Store in mesh bag in dry cool location out of sun.